1/1/14

Apr 22, 2014

"So much of being Black in America is seeing things that no one else sees, or wants to see. Sometimes, it turns out, there is indeed nothing there. […] And yet, many conspiracy theories are eventually proven true. The late Detroit mayor Coleman Young used to always say: “Just because you’re paranoid, don’t mean ain’t nobody out to get you.” Black people all over the world know that there are people out there who mean them harm and have a vested interest in writing off their claims as craziness, conspiracy theories, fantasy.

Thomas Jefferson did father Sally Hemings’s children; the CIA did help introduce crack cocaine into America’s inner cities; those doctors at Tuskegee Institute weren’t healing those Black men infected with syphilis; white folks in New Orleans, Chicago, and Washington, D.C. were plotting to reclaim neighborhoods from Blacks. The Chicago Police Department and the FBI did execute Black Panthers Fred Hampton and Mark Clark while they slept."

Apr 22, 2014

jtotheizzoe:

myartexperiments:

Happy Earth Day

It’s like we’re dancing! The waltz of Terra Luna …

jtotheizzoe:

myartexperiments:

Happy Earth Day

It’s like we’re dancing! The waltz of Terra Luna …

(via the-actual-universe)

Apr 22, 2014

neurosciencestuff:

Unlocking a Mystery of Human Disease … in Space
Huntington’s disease is a grim diagnosis. A hereditary disorder with debilitating physical and cognitive symptoms, the disease usually robs adult patients of their ability to walk, balance, and speak. More than 15 years ago, researchers revealed the disorder’s likely cause—an abnormal version of the protein huntingtin; however, the mutant protein’s mechanism is poorly understood, and the disease remains untreatable.
Now, a new project led by Pamela Bjorkman, Max Delbrück Professor of Biology, will investigate whether the huntingtin protein can form crystals in microgravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS)—crystals that are crucial for understanding the molecular structure of the protein. The experiment was launched from Cape Canaveral in Florida on Friday, April 18 aboard the SpaceX CRS-3 cargo resupply mission to the ISS. On Sunday, April 20 the station’s robotic arm captured the mission’s payload, which included the proteins for Bjorkman’s experiment—which is the first Caltech experiment to take place aboard the ISS.
In the experiment, the researchers hope to grow a crystal of the huntingtin protein—the crystal would be an organized, latticelike arrangement of the protein’s molecules—which is needed to determine the molecular structure of the protein. However, molecules of the huntingtin protein tend to aggregate, or clump together, in Earth’s gravity. And this disordered arrangement makes it incredibly hard to parse the protein’s structure, says Gwen Owens, a graduate student in Bjorkman’s lab and a researcher who helped design the study.
"We need crystals for X-ray crystallography, the technique we use to study the protein, in which we shoot an X-ray through the protein crystal and analyze the organized pattern of radiation that scatters off of it," Owens says. "That pattern is what we depend on to identify the location of every carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur atom within the protein; if we shoot an X-ray beam at a clumped, aggregate protein—like huntingtin often is—we can’t get any data from it," she says.
Researchers have previously studied small fragments of crystallized huntingtin, but because of its large size and propensity to clumping, no one has ever successfully grown a crystal of the full-length protein large enough to analyze with X-ray crystallography. To understand what the protein does—and how defects in it lead to the symptoms of Huntington’s disease—the researchers need to study the full-length protein.
Looking for a solution to this problem, Owens was inspired by a few previous studies of protein formation on space shuttles and the ISS—studies suggesting that proteins can form crystals more readily in a condition of near-weightlessness called microgravity. “The previous studies looked at much simpler proteins, but we thought we could make a pretty good case that huntingtin would be an excellent candidate to study on the ISS,” Owens says.
They proposed such an experiment to the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS), which manages U.S. research on the ISS, and it was accepted, becoming part of the first Advancing Research Knowledge, or ARK1, mission.
Because Owens and Bjorkman cannot travel with their proteins, and staff and resources are limited aboard the ISS, the crystal will be grown with a Handheld High-Density Protein Crystal Growth device—an apparatus that will allow astronauts to initiate growth of normal and mutant huntingtin protein crystals from a solution of protein molecules with just the flip of a switch.
As the crystals grow larger over a period of several months, samples will come back to Earth via the SpaceX CRS-4 return mission. The results of the experiment are scheduled to drop into the ocean just off the coast of Southern California—along with the rest of the return cargo—sometime this fall. At that point, Owens will finally be able to analyze the proteins.
"Our ideal result would be to have large crystals of the normal and mutant huntingtin proteins right away—on the first try," she says. After analyzing crystals of the full-length protein with X-ray crystallography, the researchers could finally determine huntingtin’s structure—information that will be crucial to developing treatments for Huntington’s disease.

neurosciencestuff:

Unlocking a Mystery of Human Disease … in Space

Huntington’s disease is a grim diagnosis. A hereditary disorder with debilitating physical and cognitive symptoms, the disease usually robs adult patients of their ability to walk, balance, and speak. More than 15 years ago, researchers revealed the disorder’s likely cause—an abnormal version of the protein huntingtin; however, the mutant protein’s mechanism is poorly understood, and the disease remains untreatable.

Now, a new project led by Pamela Bjorkman, Max Delbrück Professor of Biology, will investigate whether the huntingtin protein can form crystals in microgravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS)—crystals that are crucial for understanding the molecular structure of the protein. The experiment was launched from Cape Canaveral in Florida on Friday, April 18 aboard the SpaceX CRS-3 cargo resupply mission to the ISS. On Sunday, April 20 the station’s robotic arm captured the mission’s payload, which included the proteins for Bjorkman’s experiment—which is the first Caltech experiment to take place aboard the ISS.

In the experiment, the researchers hope to grow a crystal of the huntingtin protein—the crystal would be an organized, latticelike arrangement of the protein’s molecules—which is needed to determine the molecular structure of the protein. However, molecules of the huntingtin protein tend to aggregate, or clump together, in Earth’s gravity. And this disordered arrangement makes it incredibly hard to parse the protein’s structure, says Gwen Owens, a graduate student in Bjorkman’s lab and a researcher who helped design the study.

"We need crystals for X-ray crystallography, the technique we use to study the protein, in which we shoot an X-ray through the protein crystal and analyze the organized pattern of radiation that scatters off of it," Owens says. "That pattern is what we depend on to identify the location of every carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur atom within the protein; if we shoot an X-ray beam at a clumped, aggregate protein—like huntingtin often is—we can’t get any data from it," she says.

Researchers have previously studied small fragments of crystallized huntingtin, but because of its large size and propensity to clumping, no one has ever successfully grown a crystal of the full-length protein large enough to analyze with X-ray crystallography. To understand what the protein does—and how defects in it lead to the symptoms of Huntington’s disease—the researchers need to study the full-length protein.

Looking for a solution to this problem, Owens was inspired by a few previous studies of protein formation on space shuttles and the ISS—studies suggesting that proteins can form crystals more readily in a condition of near-weightlessness called microgravity. “The previous studies looked at much simpler proteins, but we thought we could make a pretty good case that huntingtin would be an excellent candidate to study on the ISS,” Owens says.

They proposed such an experiment to the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS), which manages U.S. research on the ISS, and it was accepted, becoming part of the first Advancing Research Knowledge, or ARK1, mission.

Because Owens and Bjorkman cannot travel with their proteins, and staff and resources are limited aboard the ISS, the crystal will be grown with a Handheld High-Density Protein Crystal Growth device—an apparatus that will allow astronauts to initiate growth of normal and mutant huntingtin protein crystals from a solution of protein molecules with just the flip of a switch.

As the crystals grow larger over a period of several months, samples will come back to Earth via the SpaceX CRS-4 return mission. The results of the experiment are scheduled to drop into the ocean just off the coast of Southern California—along with the rest of the return cargo—sometime this fall. At that point, Owens will finally be able to analyze the proteins.

"Our ideal result would be to have large crystals of the normal and mutant huntingtin proteins right away—on the first try," she says. After analyzing crystals of the full-length protein with X-ray crystallography, the researchers could finally determine huntingtin’s structure—information that will be crucial to developing treatments for Huntington’s disease.

Apr 22, 2014

tigburr:

coolmathstuff:

allofthemath:

appliedmathemagics:

themathkid:

Can’t. Stop. Watching.

this is hypnotic…

Conic sections are all connected! A hyperbola is an anti circle, in this case.

Remember, the equation for a circle involves adding x squared and y squared, while the equation for a hyperbola involves subtracting one from the other. The other consequence of this is that is that if you extend the graph of either one to include imaginary and complex x or y values, a hyperbola contains a circle in its empty space, and a circle has a hyperbola surrounding it.

I FOUND THE MATHEMATICIANS!
FRIENDS! FRIENDS!!

tigburr:

coolmathstuff:

allofthemath:

appliedmathemagics:

themathkid:

Can’t. Stop. Watching.

this is hypnotic…

Conic sections are all connected! A hyperbola is an anti circle, in this case.

Remember, the equation for a circle involves adding x squared and y squared, while the equation for a hyperbola involves subtracting one from the other. The other consequence of this is that is that if you extend the graph of either one to include imaginary and complex x or y values, a hyperbola contains a circle in its empty space, and a circle has a hyperbola surrounding it.

I FOUND THE MATHEMATICIANS!

FRIENDS! FRIENDS!!

(Source: jamiedykes, via visualizingmath)

Apr 22, 2014

visualizingmath:

allofthemath:

This, ladies and gentlemen and genderqueer folks, is Pascal’s tetrahedron, a three dimensional analogue of Pascal’s triangle, and it’s pretty freaking great.


I’ve never heard of this before!

visualizingmath:

allofthemath:

This, ladies and gentlemen and genderqueer folks, is Pascal’s tetrahedron, a three dimensional analogue of Pascal’s triangle, and it’s pretty freaking great.

I’ve never heard of this before!

Apr 22, 2014

10 Poverty Myths, Busted | Mother Jones

america-wakiewakie:

1. Single moms are the problem. Only 9 percent of low-income, urban moms have been single throughout their child’s first five years. Thirty-five percent were married to, or in a relationship with, the child’s father for that entire time.

2. Absent dads are the problem. Sixty percent of low-income dads see at least one of their children daily. Another 16 percent see their children weekly.

3. Black dads are the problem. Among men who don’t live with their children, black fathers are more likely than white or Hispanic dads to have a daily presence in their kids’ lives.

4. Poor people are lazy. In 2004, there was at least one adult with a job in 60 percent of families on food stamps that had both kids and a nondisabled, working-age adult.

5. If you’re not officially poor, you’re doing okay. The federal poverty line for a family of two parents and two children in 2012 was $23,283. Basic needs cost at least twice that in 615 of America’s cities and regions.

6. Go to college, get out of poverty. In 2012, about 1.1 million people who made less than $25,000 a year, worked full time, and were heads of household had a bachelor’s degree.

7. We’re winning the war on poverty. The number of households with children living on less than $2 a day per person has grown 160 percent since 1996, to 1.65 million families in 2011.

8. The days of old ladies eating cat food are over. The share of elderly single women living in extreme poverty jumped 31 percent from 2011 to 2012.

9. The homeless are drunk street people. One in 45 kids in the United States experiences homelessness each year. In New York City alone, 22,000 children are homeless.

10. Handouts are bankrupting us. In 2012, total welfare funding was 0.47 percent of the federal budget.

(via wilwheaton)

Apr 22, 2014

feministmajorityfoundation:

April 22, 1919: Pennsylvania House Passes Bill Putting Suffrage on the Ballot

feministmajorityfoundation:

April 22, 1919: Pennsylvania House Passes Bill Putting Suffrage on the Ballot

Apr 22, 2014

amnhnyc:

Extinct mollusks known as ammonites inhabited the planet for more than 300 million years—almost twice as long as dinosaurs—before disappearing in the mass extinction event more than 65 million years ago. 
As many as 10,000 species may have existed, ranging from tiny organisms that measured only a fraction of an inch across to formidable animals more than 2 feet in diameter, such as the spectacular 75-million-year-old specimen shown above, which is on view in the Museum’s Grand Gallery. 
Learn more about these amazing ammonites.

Pretty! http://bit.ly/1mvaIcw

amnhnyc:

Extinct mollusks known as ammonites inhabited the planet for more than 300 million years—almost twice as long as dinosaurs—before disappearing in the mass extinction event more than 65 million years ago.

As many as 10,000 species may have existed, ranging from tiny organisms that measured only a fraction of an inch across to formidable animals more than 2 feet in diameter, such as the spectacular 75-million-year-old specimen shown above, which is on view in the Museum’s Grand Gallery.

Learn more about these amazing ammonites.

Pretty!

Apr 22, 2014

huffingtonpost:

On Earth Day, these photos remind us just how little we know of the planet we call home.

(Source: youtube.com)

Apr 22, 2014

exploratorium:

Happy Earth Day and National Parks Week! National Park entrance is free April 19 to April 27. Parks are great places for noticing and exploring natural phenomenon. Get out there and enjoy it!© Paul Doherty, All Rights Reserved

exploratorium:

Happy Earth Day and National Parks Week! National Park entrance is free April 19 to April 27. Parks are great places for noticing and exploring natural phenomenon. Get out there and enjoy it!

© Paul Doherty, All Rights Reserved